By Olga Holownia, Senior Program Officer, IIPC & Kelsey Socha, Administrative Officer, IIPC with contributions to the Collaborative Collection section by Nicola Bingham, Lead Curator, Web Archives, British Library; CDG co-chair
This month, the IIPC Content Development Working Group (CDG) launched a new collaborative collection to archive web content related to the war in Ukraine, aiming to map the impact of this conflict on digital history and culture. In this blog, we describe what is involved in creating a transnational collection and we also give an overview of web archiving efforts that started earlier this year: both collections by IIPC members and collaborative volunteer initiatives.
Collaborative Collection 2022
In line with the broader content development policy, CDG collections focus on topics that are transnational in scope and are considered of high interest to IIPC members. Each collection represents more perspectives than similar collections by a single member archive may include. Nominations are submitted by IIPC members, who have been archiving the conflict as early as January 2022 (see below) as well as the general public.
How do members contribute?
Topics for special collections are proposed by IIPC members who submit their ideas to the IIPC CDG mailing list, or contact the IIPC co-chairs directly at any time. Providing that the topic fits with the CDG collecting scope, there is enough data budget to cover the collection, and a lead curator and volunteers to perform the archiving work are in place, the collection can go ahead. IIPC members are then canvassed widely to submit web content on a shared google spreadsheet together with associated metadata such as title, language and description. The URLs are taken from the spreadsheet and crawled in Archive-It by the project team, formed of volunteers from IIPC members for each collection. Many IIPC members add a selection of seeds from their institutions’ own collections which helps to make CDG collections very diverse in terms of coverage and language.
There will be overlap between the seeds that members submit to CDG collections and their own institutions’ collections, however there are differences, including that selections for IIPC collections can be more geographically wide ranging than those included in their own collections when, for example they must adhere to regional scope, such as in the case of a national library. Selection decisions that are appropriate for members’ own collections may not be appropriate for CDG collections. For example, members may want to curate individual articles from an online newspaper by crawling each one separately whereas, given the larger scope of CDG collections it would be more appropriate to create the target at the level of the sub-section of the online newspaper. Public access to collections provided by Archive-It is a positive factor for those institutions that, for various reasons, can’t provide access to their collections. You can learn more about the War in Ukraine 2022 collection’s scope and parameters here.
We encourage everyone to nominate relevant web content as defined by the collection’s lead curators: Vladimir Tybin and Anaïs Crinière-Boizet of the BnF, National Library of France and Kees Teszelszky of KB, National Library of the Netherlands. The first crawl is scheduled to take place on 27 July and it will be followed by two additional crawls in September and October. We will be publishing updates on the collection at #Ukraine 2022 Collection. We are also planning to make this collection available to researchers.
In Spring 2022, we compiled a survey of the work done by IIPC members. We asked about the collection start date, scope, frequency, type of collected websites, way of collecting (e.g. locally and/or via Archive-It), social media platforms and access.
IIPC members have collected content related to the war, ranging from news portals, to governmental websites, to embassies, charities, and cultural heritage sites. They have also selectively collected content from Ukrainian and Russian websites and social media, including Facebook, Reddit, Instagram, and, most prominently, Twitter. The CDG collection offers another chance for members without special collections to contribute seeds from their own country domains.
Many of our members are national libraries and archives, and legal deposit informs what these institutions are able to collect and how they provide access. In most cases, that would mean crawling country-level domains, offering a localized perspective on the war. Access varies from completely open (e.g. the Internet Archive, National Library of Australia and the Croatian Web Archive), to onsite-only with published and browsable metadata such as collected URLs (e.g. the Hungarian Web Archive) to reading-room only (e.g. Netarkivet at the Royal Danish Library or the “Archives de l’internet” at the national library of France). The UK Web Archive collection has a mixed model of access, where the full list of metadata and collected URLs are available, but access to individual websites depends on whether the website owner has granted permission for off-site open access”. Some institutions, such as Library of Congress, may have time-based embargoes in place for collection access.
Some of our members have also begun work preparing datasets and visualisations for researchers. The Internet Archive has been supporting multiple collections and volunteer projects and our members have provided valuable advice on capturing content that is difficult to archive (e.g. Telegram messages).
A map of IIPC members currently collecting content related to the war in Ukraine can be seen below. It includes Stanford University, which has been supporting SUCHO (Saving Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Online).
While many members have been collecting content related to the war, only a small number of collections are currently publicly available online. Some members provide access to browsable metadata or a list of ULRs. The National Library of Australia has been collecting publicly available Australian websites related to the conflict,as is the case for the National Library of the Czech Republic. A special event collection of 162 crowd-sourced URLs is now accessible at the Croatian Web Archive. The UK Web Archive’s special collection of nearly 300 websites is fully available on-site, however information about the collected resources, which currently include websites of Russian Oligarchs in the UK, Commentators, Charities, Think Tanks and the UK Embassies of Ukraine and the surrounding nations, is publicly available online. Some websites from the UK Web Archive’s collection are also fully available off-site, where website owners have granted permission. The National Library of Scotland has set up a special collection, ‘Scottish Communities and the Ukraine’ which contains nearly 100 websites and focuses on the local response to the Ukraine War. This collection will be viewable in the near future pending QA checks. Most of the University Library of Bratislava’s collection is only available on-site, but information about sites collected is browsable on their web portal with links to current versions of the archived pages.
The web archiving team at the National Széchényi Library in Hungary, which has been capturing content from 75 news portals, has created a SolrWayback-based public search interface which provides access to metadata and full-text search, though full pages cannot be viewed due to copyright. The web archiving team has also been collaborating with the library’s Digital Humanities Center to create datasets and visualisations related to captured content.
Multiple institutions plan to make their content available online at a later date, after collecting has finished or after a specified period of time has passed. The Library of Congress has been capturing content in a number of collections within the scope of their collecting policies, including the ongoing East European Government Ministries Web Archive.
Frequency of Collection
Most institutions have been collecting with a variety of frequencies. Institutions rarely answered with just one of the frequency options, opting instead to pick multiple options or “Other.” Of answers in the “Other” category, some were doing one-time collection, while others were collecting yearly, six-monthly, and quarterly.
How the content is collected
Most IIPC members crawl the content locally, while a few have also been using Archive-It. SUCHO has mostly relied on browser-based crawler Browsertrix, which was developed by Ilya Kreymer of Webrecorder and is in part funded by the IIPC, and on the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine.
Type of collected websites (your domain)
When asked about types of websites being collected within local domains, most institutions have been focusing on governmental and news-related sites, followed by embassies and official sites related to Ukraine and Russia as well as cultural heritage sites. Other websites included a variety of crisis relief organisations, non-profits, blogs, think tanks, charities, and research organisations.
Types of websites/social media collected
When asked more broadly, most members have been focusing on local websites from their home countries. Outside local websites, some institutions were collecting Ukrainian websites and social media, while a smaller number were collecting Russian websites and social media.
Specific social media platforms collected
The survey also asked specifically about social media platforms our members were pulling from: Reddit, Instagram, TikTok, Tumblr, and Youtube. While many institutions were not collecting social media, Twitter was otherwise the most commonly collected social media platform.
The Internet Archive (IA) has been instrumental in providing support for multiple initiatives related to the war in Ukraine. IA’s initiatives have included:
- giving free Archive-It accounts, as well as general data storage, to a number of different community archiving efforts
- uploading files to SUCHO collection at archive.org
- supporting the extensive use of Save Page Now (especially via the Google Sheets interface) with the help of numerous SUCHO volunteers (many 10s of TB have been archived this way)
- supporting the uploading of WACZ files to the Wayback Machine. This work has just started but a significant number of files are expected to be archived and, similar to other collections featured in the new “Collection Search” service, a full-text index will be available
- crawling the entire country code top level domain of the Ukrainian web (the crawl was launched in April and is still running)
- archiving Russian Independent Media (TV, TV Rain), Radio (Echo of Moscow) and web-based resources (see “Russian Independent Media” option in the “Collection Search” service at the bottom of the Wayback Machine).
IA’s Television News Archive, the GDELT Project, and the Media-Data Research Consortium have all collaborated to create the Television News Visual Explorer, which allows for greater research access of the Television News Archive, including channels from across Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. This blog post by GDELT’s Dr. Kavel H. Leetaru explains more of the significance of this collaboration, and the importance of this new research collection of Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian television news coverage.
One of the largest volunteer initiatives focusing on preserving Ukrainian web content has been SUCHO. Involving over 1300 librarians, archivists, researchers and programmers, SUCHO is led by Stanford University’s Quinn Dombrowski, Anna E. Kijas of Tufts University, and Sebastian Majstorovic of the Austrian Centre for Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. In its first phase, the project’s primary goal was to archive at-risk sites, digital content, and data in Ukrainian cultural heritage institutions. So far over 30TB of content and 3,500+ websites of Ukrainian museums, libraries and archives have been preserved and a subset of this collection is available at https://www.sucho.org/archives. The project is beginning its second phase, focusing on coordinating aid shipments of digitization hardware, exhibiting Ukrainian culture online and organizing training for Ukrainian cultural workers in digitization methods.
The Telegram Archive of the War
Telegram has been the most widely used application in Ukraine since the onset of the war but this messaging app is notoriously difficult to archive. A team of five archivists at the Center for Urban History in Lviv led by Taras Nazaruk, has been archiving almost 1000 Telegram channels since late February to create the Telegram Archive of the War. Each team member has been assigned to monitor and archive a topic or a region in Ukraine. They focus on capturing official announcements from different military administrative districts, ministries, local and regional news, volunteer groups helping with evacuation, searches for missing people, local channels for different towns, databases, cyberattacks, Russian propaganda, fake news as well as personal diaries, artistic reflections, humour and memes. Russian government propaganda and pro-Russian channels and chats are also archived. The multi-media content is currently grouped into over 20 thematic collections. The project coordinators have also been working with universities interested in supporting this archive and are planning to set up a working group to provide guidance for the future access to this invaluable archive.
Ukraine collections on Archive-It
New content has been gradually made available within the Ukraine collections on Archive-It that provided free or heavily cost-shared accounts to its partners earlier this year. These collections also include websites documenting the Ukraine Crisis 2014-2015 curated by University of California Berkeley (UC Berkeley) and by Internet Archive Global Events. Four new collections have been created since February 2022 with over 2.5TB of content. The largest one about the 2022 conflict (around 200 URLs) that is publicly available is curated by Ukrainian Research Institute at Harvard University. Other collections that focus on Ukrainian content are curated by Center for Urban History of East Central Europe, UC Berkeley and SUCHO. To learn more about the “War in Ukraine: 2022” collection, read this blog post by Liladhar R. Pendse, Librarian for East European, Central European, Central Asian and Armenian Studies Collections, UC Berkeley. University of Oxford, New College has been archiving at-risk Russian cultural heritage on the web as well as Russian opposition efforts to the war on Ukraine.
Organisations interested in collecting web content related to the war in Ukraine, can contact Mirage Berry, Business Development Manager at the Internet Archive.
How to get involved
- Nominate web content for the CDG collection
- Use the Internet Archive’s “Save Page Now”
- Check updates on the SUCHO Page for information on how you can contribute to the new phase of the project. SUCHO is currently accepting donations to pay for server costs and funding digitization equipment to send to Ukraine. Those interested in volunteering with SUCHO can sign up for the standby volunteer list here
- Help the Center for Urban History in Lviv by nominating Ukrainian Telegram channels that you think are worth archiving and participate in their events
- Submit information about your project: we are working to maintain a comprehensive and up-to-date list of web archiving efforts related to the war in Ukraine. If you are involved in a collection or a project and would like to see it included here, please use this form to contact us: https://bit.ly/archiving-the-war-in-Ukraine.
Many thanks to all of the institutions and projects featured on this list! We appreciate the time our members spent filling out our survey, and answering questions. Special thanks to Nicola Bingham of the British Library, Mark Graham and Mirage Berry of the Internet Archive, and Taras Nazaruk of the Center for Urban History in Lviv for providing supplementary information on their institutions’ collecting efforts.
- #Ukraine 2022 Collection
- Archive-It blog
- Internet Archive Blogs
- Media coverage of the SUCHO Project
- Media coverage of the Telegram Archive